The average annual air temperature is from −15 ° C to +7 ° C, permafrost is widespread throughout the region.
The climate of the Far East is particularly contrasted: from the Arctic and subarctic in the north of Yakutia and Kamchatka, in the Magadan region and Chukotka to the monsoon in Sakhalin, in the Jewish and partially Amur regions, in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories. In most of Yakutia and the north-west of the Amur Region, a sharply continental climate dominates, and in Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands, the climate is marine. Such differences are due to the vast extent of the territory from north to south (almost 4500 km) and from west to east (2500-3000 km).
The most significant differences between the Far East and Siberia are associated with the predominance of sharply monsoon climate in the south and monsoon and marine in the north, which is the result of the interaction between the Pacific Ocean and the land of North Asia. The cold Sea of Okhotsk and the cold Primorsky Current along the coast of the Sea of Japan have a significant impact on the climate. The climate is also affected by mountainous terrain.
The Far East is rich in raw materials. This gives him the opportunity to occupy an important place in the country’s economy in a number of commodity positions. So, in the all-Russian production of individual resources, the Far East accounts for (%): diamonds – 98, tin – 80, boron raw materials – 90, gold – 50, tungsten – 14, fish and seafood – more than 40, soybeans – 80, wood – 13, pulp – 7. The main industries of the Far East: mining and processing of non-ferrous metals, mining of diamonds, fish, timber, pulp and paper industry, shipbuilding, ship repair. These factors, when oriented to the domestic market, determined the role of the Far East as part of Russia.
It mainly developed the extractive industries – fishing, forestry, non-ferrous metal mining, which account for more than half of marketable products. Manufacturing industries are extremely poorly developed. By exporting raw materials, the region loses potential revenues in the form of value added. Its remoteness leads to significant transport surcharges, which are reflected in the cost indicators of most sectors of the economy.